It was bound to happen.
You exhausted the more traditional genealogy records (census records, vital records, deeds….) for your ancestor and you still need more information.
At a recent conference you attended, someone recommended you search for your ancestor(s) in the city directories.
What is the city directory and why would you use one in your genealogy research?
When I first heard of using city directories in my genealogy research, I immediately thought of phone books. Yes, phone books are directories, but relatively new in the evolution of city directories.
City directories have been around for a long time with the first ones in the US were published within a couple of years after the American Revolution. Directories were initially created by craftsmen and salesmen to contact the local residents and potential customers.
Directories evolved and were usually created yearly which for the genealogy researcher allows one to track an ancestor year by year as opposed to the census records tracking individuals decade by decade. Tracking an ancestor year by year can help you determine when he/she migrated out of an area or if their economic situation improved based on a change of neighborhoods.
The directories also included different types of information from the census records.
Types of Information Found In City Directories
Based on date and location, the type of information in a city directory will vary. These are some examples of types of information potentially found in a city directory.
- Wives names may be listed in parentheses
- Marital status (If widowed, the name of her husband)
- Area maps
- Addresses and locations of schools and places of worship.
I think you are starting to see just how valuable city directories can be in your research, so let’s take a closer look.
The 1837 Salem, MA directory tells just what it has to offer on its title page: Name of the inhabitants; Occupation, businesses and residences; City officers, etc; Street & Wharves and (my favorite) “Other useful information”.
In another example, follow Israel Lisson through some of the Rochester, New York city directories. In this exert from the 1896 Rochester, NY directory, Israel Lisson is listed so we as researchers can place him in time (1896) and place (Rochester, NY). Israel’s occupation is listed as a pedler [peddler] and he lives at 38 Nassau. We can literally place him on the map in 1896.
Coming forward a few years, in 1915 Israel Lisson in still in the Rochester directory.
This time we see Israel is still a pedler [peddler] and is living at 81 Chatham. Again, he is placed in time and place. Notice the other Lisson family members listed. From other genealogy records we know all but Barnet are Israel’s adult children.
This final directory example (below) I am sharing with you is from the 1930 Rochester directory. By this time, Israel is dead, but note his widow Dora is listed. This directory entry can be used to narrow down a death date.
On another note, notice the other Lisson family members noted. The married males’ wives are listed in parentheses. Directories can be a source for finding an ancestor’s spouse!
Where To Find Directories
Now that I have convinced you of the value of researching city directories, let’s find them! As with other records, what is available will vary by state and time period. Check out these sources.
- Google books – Here is an example of an Ann Arbor, MI directory.
- The New York Public Library
- University Collections
- State and local archives
- United States Online Historical Directories
Your Action Item For the Week
Explore what city directories exist for the locations where your ancestors lived. Start searching!